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Sydney, New South Wales, Australia



 


Notes: Sydney (pronounced /ˈsɪd.niː/) is the most populous city in Australia, with a metropolitan area population of over 4,200,000 people, and 151,920 within the city centre. Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales, and is the site of the first European colony in Australia, established in 1788 at Sydney Cove by Arthur Phillip, leader of the First Fleet from Britain. A resident of the city is referred to as a Sydneysider.
Sydney is located on Australia's south-east coast. The city is built around Port Jackson, which includes Sydney Harbour, leading to the city's nickname, "the Harbour City". It is Australia's largest financial centre and the economic capital, home to many national headquarters of corporations, including the Australian Stock Exchange. Sydney's leading economic sectors include property and business services, retail, manufacturing, tourism and health and community services.
Sydney is also a major international tourist destination, often referred to as the international gateway of Australia, and is notable for its beaches and twin landmarks: the Sydney Opera House and the Harbour Bridge. The metropolitan area is surrounded by national parks, and contains many bays, rivers and inlets. It has been recognised as a global city, by the Loughborough University group.
The city has played host to numerous international sporting events, including the 1938 British Empire Games, 2000 Summer Olympics and the 2003 Rugby World Cup. In 2008, Sydney will also host the 23rd Roman Catholic World Youth Day.
Sydney is one of the most multicultural cities in the world which reflects its role as a major destination for immigrants to Australia. According to the Mercer cost of living survey, Sydney is Australia’s most expensive city, and the 19th most expensive in the world.
History
It has been speculated that the Sydney region has been populated by indigenous Australians for at least 40,000 years. At the time of the arrival of the First Fleet in 1788, 4000 - 8000 Aboriginal people lived in the region. There were three different language groups in the Sydney region; these were further refined into dialects spoken by smaller clans. The principal languages were Darug (the Cadigal, original inhabitants of the City of Sydney, spoke a coastal dialect of Darug), Dharawal and Guringai. Each clan had a territory; the location of that territory determined the resources available. Although urbanisation has destroyed most evidence of these settlements (such as shell middens), rock carvings still exist in several locations.
European interest in colonising Australia arose with the landing of British sea captain, Lieutenant James Cook in Botany Bay in 1770. Under instruction from the British government, a convict settlement was founded by Arthur Phillip in 1788. Phillip founded the colony at Sydney Cove on Port Jackson. He named it after the British Home Secretary, Thomas Townshend, Lord Sydney, in recognition of Sydney's role in issuing the charter authorising Phillip to establish a colony. In April 1789 a disease, thought to be smallpox, decimated the indigenous population of Sydney; a conservative estimate says that 500 to 1000 Aboriginal people died in the area between Broken and Botany Bays. There was violent resistance to British settlement, notably by the warrior Pemulwuy in the area around Botany Bay, and conflicts were common in the area surrounding the Hawkesbury River. By 1820 there were only a few hundred Aborigines and Governor Macquarie had begun initiatives to 'civilize, Christianize and educate' the Aborigines by removing them from their clans.
Macquarie's tenure as Governor of New South Wales was a period when Sydney was improved from its basic beginnings. Roads, bridges, wharves and public buildings were constructed by British and Irish convicts, and by 1822 the town had banks, markets, well-established thoroughfares and an organised constabulary. The 1830s and 1840s were periods of urban development, including the development of the first suburbs, as the town grew rapidly when ships began arriving from Britain and Ireland with immigrants looking to start a new life in a new country. On July 20 1842 the municipal council of Sydney was incorporated and the town was declared the first city in Australia, Charles H. Chambers was the first mayor. The first of several gold rushes started in 1851, and the port of Sydney has since seen many waves of people arriving from around the world. Rapid suburban development began in the last quarter of the 19th century with the advent of steam powered tramways and railways. With industrialisation Sydney expanded rapidly, and by the early 20th century it had a population well in excess of one million. The Great Depression hit Sydney badly. One of the highlights of the Depression era, however, was the completion of the Sydney Harbour Bridge in 1932.
Throughout the 20th century Sydney continued to expand with various new waves of European and (later) Asian immigration, resulting in its highly cosmopolitan atmosphere.
Density
Sydney is particularly noted for its low population density. The reasons for Sydney's low-density development are rooted in its history. Surrounded by land that was considered unowned by the city's founders, early Sydney enjoyed relatively low land values, allowing more residents to acquire larger plots on which to live. This was reinforced by Sydney's development as a predominantly middle class, commercial city, in which even the working classes enjoyed higher wages and living standards than their counterparts in Europe.
Finally, Sydney acquired its public transport system early on in its life. Working-class suburbs could thus be built far from the city centre, whereas in older cities, the need to maintain walking distance between residential and employment centres kept sprawl to a minimum.
Coupled with successive governments' willingness to release new land on the city's outskirts for further development, this history has given Sydney a low-density self-image. Ingrained hostility to urban consolidation and higher density living represents a major challenge to the city's future growth.
Demographics
3,455,110 people lived in Sydney's urban area as at 2001. As of 2005 there are an estimated 4,254,894 people living in the Sydney Statistical Division with a population density of 345.7 persons per square kilometre, Inner Sydney being the most densely populated place in Australia with 4023 persons per square kilometre. The statistical division is larger in area than the urban area, as it allows for predicted growth. A resident of Sydney is commonly referred to as a Sydneysider.
In the 2001 census, the most common self-described ancestries identified for Sydney residents were Australian, English, Irish, and Italian. The Census also recorded that 1% of Sydney's population identified as being of indigenous origin and 31.2% were born overseas. The three major sources of immigrants are the United Kingdom, China and New Zealand. Significant numbers of immigrants also came from Vietnam, Lebanon, Greece, Italy, India and the Philippines. Most Sydneysiders are native speakers of English; many have a second language, the most common being Chinese languages, Arabic (including the Lebanese dialect) and Greek. Sydney has the seventh largest percentage of a foreign born population in the world, ahead of cities such as the highly multicultural London and Paris.
Some ethnic groups are associated with the suburbs where they first settled: the Italians with Leichhardt, Haberfield, Five Dock, Greeks with Earlwood and Marrickville, Portuguese with Petersham, Lebanese with Lakemba and Bankstown, Koreans with Campsie and Strathfield, ethnic Macedonians with Rockdale, Irish and New Zealanders with Bondi, Jews with Bondi, Waverley, St Ives and Rose Bay, Indians with Westmead and Parramatta, Chinese with Hurstville, Chatswood, Ashfield and Haymarket (where Sydney's Chinatown has emerged), Armenians with Ryde and Willoughby, Serbs with Liverpool, Turks with Auburn, Filipinos with Blacktown and Mount Druitt, and Vietnamese with Cabramatta.
The median age of a Sydney resident is 34, with 12% of the population over 65 years. 15.2% of Sydney residents have educational attainment equal to at least a bachelor's degree, which is lower than the national average of 19%. Approximately 67% of Sydney residents describe themselves as Christian, the most common denominations being Catholic and Anglican. About 9% of the population practises a non-Christian religion, the most common being Buddhism and Islam, both at 3.4% of Sydney's total population. About 12% of Sydney residents are not religious.
According to the 2001 census, 29.9% of Sydney residents identified as Catholics, 20.1% as Anglicans, 17.8% as members of other Christian denominations, 3.4% as Buddhists, 3.4% as Muslims, 1.2% as Hindus, 0.8% as Jews and 11.9% as having no religion.

OpenStreetMap

City/Town : Latitude: -33.868333, Longitude: 151.208611


Birth

Matches 1 to 2 of 2

   Last Name, Given Name(s)    Birth    Person ID 
1 Farrow, John Villiers  10 Feb 1904Sydney, New South Wales, Australia I677974
2 Hillary, Richard  20 Apr 1919Sydney, New South Wales, Australia I258319

Died

Matches 1 to 11 of 11

   Last Name, Given Name(s)    Died    Person ID 
1 Beckeringh, Jantje  21 Oct 1984Sydney, New South Wales, Australia I419132
2 van Coevorden, Frederika  1970Sydney, New South Wales, Australia I89400
3 van Coevorden, Roza  1995Sydney, New South Wales, Australia I247785
4 de Hoop, Hendrik  23 Nov 2005Sydney, New South Wales, Australia I754340
5 Lavenu, Lewis Henry  1859Sydney, New South Wales, Australia I684776
6 Redgrave, George Ellsworthy  25 May 1922Sydney, New South Wales, Australia I669055
7 Scheer, Fijcko  08 Mar 1980Sydney, New South Wales, Australia I418898
8 Schothorst, Lammechiena  15 Apr 1982Sydney, New South Wales, Australia I577860
9 Swaab, Simon  Dec 1971Sydney, New South Wales, Australia I89412
10 Velema, Trijntje Johanna Berendina  22 Mar 2003Sydney, New South Wales, Australia I754341
11 de Vries, Abraham  05 Mar 2007Sydney, New South Wales, Australia I230987

Married

Matches 1 to 3 of 3

   Family    Married    Family ID 
1 Belinfante / Greenblatt  17 Nov 1921Sydney, New South Wales, Australia F48800
2 Flynn / Young  23 Jan 1909Sydney, New South Wales, Australia F256841
3 Urban / Kidman  25 Jun 2006Sydney, New South Wales, Australia F261129

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